The spmatrix module is the foundation of the PySparse package. It extends the Python interpreter by three new types named ll_mat, csr_mat and sss_mat. These types represent sparse matrices in the LL-, the CSR- and SSS-formats respectively (see Sparse Matrix Formats). For all three formats, double precision values (C type double) are used to represent the non-zero entries.
The common way to use the spmatrix module is to first build a matrix in the LL-format. The LL-matrix is manipulated until it has its final shape and content. Afterwards it may be converted to either the CSR- or SSS-format, which needs less memory and allows for fast matrix-vector multiplications.
A ll_mat object can be created from scratch, by reading data from a file (in MatrixMarket format) or as a result of matrix operation (as e.g.a matrix-matrix multiplication). The ll_mat object supports manipulating (reading, writing, add-updating) single entries or sub-matrices.
csr_mat and sss_mat are not constructed directly, instead they are created by converting ll_mat objects. Once created, csr_mat and sss_mat objects cannot be manipulated. Their purpose is to support efficient matrix-vector multiplications.
Creates a ll_mat object, that represents a general, all zero \(m \times n\) matrix. The optional sizeHint parameter specifies the number of non-zero entries for which space is allocated initially.
If the total number of non-zero elements of the final matrix is known (approximately), this number can be passed as sizeHint. This will avoid costly memory reallocations.
Creates a ll_mat object, that represents a symmetric, all zero \(n \times n\) matrix. The optional sizeHint parameter specifies, how much space is initially allocated for the matrix.
Creates a ll_mat object from a file named fileName, which must be in MatrixMarket Coordinate format. Depending on the file content, either a symmetric or a general sparse matrix is generated.
Computes the matrix-matrix multiplication \(\mathbf{C} := \mathbf{A} \mathbf{B}\) and returns the result \(\mathbf{C}\) as a new ll_mat object representing a general sparse matrix. The parameters \(\mathbf{A}\) and \(\mathbf{B}\) are expected to be objects of type ll_mat.
Computes the dot-product \(\mathbf{C} := \mathbf{A^T B}\) and returns the result \(\mathbf{C}\) as a new ll_mat object representing a general sparse matrix. The parameters \(\mathbf{A}\) and \(\mathbf{B}\) are expected to be objects of type ll_mat.
ll_mat objects represent matrices stored in the LL format, which are described in Sparse Matrix Formats. ll_mat objects come in two flavours: general matrices and symmetric matrices. For symmetric matrices only the non-zero entries in the lower triangle are stored. Write operations to the strictly upper triangle are prohibited for the symmetric format. The issym attribute of an ll_mat object can be queried to find out whether or not the symmetric storage format is used.
The entries of a matrix can be accessed conveniently using two-dimensional array indices. In the Python language, subscripts can be of any type (as it is customary for dictionaries). A two-dimensional index can be regarded as a 2-tuple (the brackets do not have to be written, so A[1,2] is the same as A[(1,2)]). If both tuple elements are integers, then a single matrix element is referenced. If at least one of the tuple elements is a slice (which is also a Python object), then a submatrix is referenced.
Subscripts have to be decoded at runtime. This task includes type checks, extraction of indices from the 2-tuple, parsing of slice objects and index bound checks. Following Python conventions, indices start with 0 and wrap around (so -1 is equivalent to the last index).
The following code creates an empty \(5 \times 5\) matrix A, sets all diagonal elements to their respective row/column index and then copies the value of A[0,0] to A[2,1]:
>>> from pysparse.sparse import spmatrix
>>> A = spmatrix.ll_mat(5, 5)
>>> for i in range(5):
... A[i,i] = i+1
>>> A[2,1] = A[0,0]
>>> print A
ll_mat(general, [5,5], [(0,0): 1, (1,1): 2, (2,1): 1,
(2,2): 3, (3,3): 4, (4,4): 5])
The Python slice notation can be used to conveniently access sub-matrices.
>>> print A[:2,:] # the first two rows
ll_mat(general, [2,5], [(0,0): 1, (1,1): 2])
>>> print A[:,2:5] # columns 2 to 4
ll_mat(general, [5,3], [(2,0): 3, (3,1): 4, (4,2): 5])
>>> print A[1:3,2:5] # submatrix from row 1 col 2 to row 2 col 4
ll_mat(general, [2,3], [(1,0): 3])
The slice operator always returns a new ll_mat object, containing a copy of the selected submatrix.
Write operations to slices are also possible:
>>> B = ll_mat(2, 2) # create 2-by-2
>>> B[0,0] = -1; B[1,1] = -1 # diagonal matrix
>>> A[:2,:2] = B # assign it to upper
>>> # diagonal block of A
>>> print A
ll_mat(general, [5,5], [(0,0): -1, (1,1): -1, (2,1): 1,
(2,2): 3, (3,3): 4, (4,4): 5])
There is flexibility in the way submatrices of ll_mat objects can be accessed. In particular, rows and columns can be permuted arbitrarily and submatrices need not be composed of consecutive rows or indices. Let’s look at an example. Below, the poisson1d() function assembles a Poisson matrix. We come back to Poisson matrices later in this section.
>>> from pysparse.sparse import poisson
>>> n = 5
>>> A = poisson.poisson1d(n)
>>> print A # Original matrix
ll_mat(general, [5,5]):
2.000000 -1.000000 -------- -------- --------
-1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 -------- --------
-------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
-------- -------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000
>>> print A[n-1:1:-1,1:n-1] # Rows 2 through n-1 in reverse order,
>>> # second through one before last col
ll_mat(general, [3,3]):
-------- -------- -1.000000
-------- -1.000000 2.000000
-1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
>>> print A[::-1,:] # Reverse row order
ll_mat(general, [5,5]):
-------- -------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000
-------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
-------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 --------
-1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 -------- --------
2.000000 -1.000000 -------- -------- --------
>>> print A[:,::-1] # Reverse col order (same as above b/c A is symmetric)
ll_mat(general, [5,5]):
-------- -------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000
-------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
-------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 --------
-1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 -------- --------
2.000000 -1.000000 -------- -------- --------
>>> print A[::-1,::-1] # Reverse row and col order (same as original matrix)
ll_mat(general, [5,5]):
2.000000 -1.000000 -------- -------- --------
-1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 -------- --------
-------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
-------- -------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000
>>> print A[1:3,3:] # Rows 1 and 2, cols 3 and up
ll_mat(general, [2,2]):
-------- --------
-1.000000 --------
>>> print A[::2,::2] # Every other row and col
ll_mat(general, [3,3]):
2.000000 -------- --------
-------- 2.000000 --------
-------- -------- 2.000000
Keep in mind that as always with Python slices, the final index is never included. Note also that slicing always returns a general matrix. Even though it might be symmetric, both triangles are stored. Finally, slicing should be applied to general matrices. If applied to symmetric matrices, only a partial result is returned.
Fancy indexing can also be done with Python lists:
>>> print A[ [1,4,2,0], ::2]
ll_mat(general, [4,3]):
-1.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- 2.000000
-------- 2.000000 --------
2.000000 -------- --------
>>> p = [1,4,2,0]
>>> q = [0,2,4]
>>> print A[p,q]
ll_mat(general, [4,3]):
-1.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- 2.000000
-------- 2.000000 --------
2.000000 -------- --------
or with integer Numpy arrays:
>>> idx0 = numpy.array([1,4,2,0], dtype=numpy.int)
>>> idx1 = numpy.array([0,2,4], dtype=numpy.int)
>>> print A[idx0,idx1]
ll_mat(general, [4,3]):
-1.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- 2.000000
-------- 2.000000 --------
2.000000 -------- --------
Finally, fancy indexing can be used to assign the same numerical value to a submatrix:
>>> A[:3,:3] = 7 # Assign value 7.0 to a principal submatrix
>>> print A
ll_mat(general, [5,5]):
7.000000 7.000000 7.000000 -------- --------
7.000000 7.000000 7.000000 -------- --------
7.000000 7.000000 7.000000 -1.000000 --------
-------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000 -1.000000
-------- -------- -------- -1.000000 2.000000
Notice however that although the slice [0:3] appears to amount to the list [0,1,2], the assignments A[:3,:3]=7 and A.put([7,7,7], [0,1,2], [0,1,2]) produce very different results.
Warning
For large-scale matrices, fancy indexing is most efficient when both index sets have the same type: two Python slices or two Python lists. When the index sets have different types, index arrays are built internally and this results in a performance hit.
A general sparse matrix class in linked-list format which also allows the representation of symmetric matrices. Only the lower triangle of a symmetric matrix is kept in memory for efficiency.
Returns a 2-tuple containing the shape of the matrix \(\mathbf{A}\), i.e. the number of rows and columns.
Returns the number of non-zero entries stored in matrix \(\mathbf{A}\). If \(\mathbf{A}\) is stored in symmetric format, only the number of non-zero entries in the lower triangle (including the diagonal) are returned.
Returns true (a non-zero integer) if matrix \(\mathbf{A}\) is stored in the symmetric LL format, i.e. only the non-zero entries in the lower triangle are stored. Returns false (zero) if matrix \(\mathbf{A}\) is stored in the general LL format.
Computes the sparse matrix-vector product \(\mathbf{y} := \mathbf{A} \mathbf{x}\) where \(\mathbf{x}\) and \(\mathbf{y}\) are double precision, rank-1 NumPy arrays of appropriate size.
Computes the transposed sparse matrix-vector product \(\mathbf{y} := \mathbf{A}^T \mathbf{x}\) where \(\mathbf{x}\) and \(\mathbf{y}\) are double precision, rank-1 NumPy arrays of appropriate size. For sss_mat objects matvec_transp is equivalent to matvec.
This method converts a sparse matrix in linked list format to compressed sparse row format. Returns a newly allocated csr_mat object, which results from converting matrix \(\mathbf{A}\).
This method converts a sparse matrix in linked list format to sparse skyline format. Returns a newly allocated sss_mat object, which results from converting matrix \(\mathbf{A}\). This function works for ll_mat objects in both the symmetric and the general format. If \(\mathbf{A}\) is stored in general format, only the entries in the lower triangle are used for the conversion. No check whether \(\mathbf{A}\) is symmetric is performed.
Exports the matrix \(\mathbf{A}\) to file named fileName. The matrix is stored in MatrixMarket Coordinate format. Depending on the properties of the ll_mat object \(\mathbf{A}\) the generated file either uses the symmetric or a general MatrixMarket Coordinate format. The optional parameter precision specifies the number of decimal digits that are used to express the non-zero entries in the output file.
Performs the daxpy operation \(\mathbf{A} \leftarrow \mathbf{A} + \sigma \mathbf{M}\). The parameter \(\sigma\) is expected to be a Python Float object. The parameter \(\mathbf{M}\) is expected to an object of type ll_mat of compatible shape.
Returns a new ll_mat object that is a (deep) copy of the ll_mat object \(\mathbf{A}\). So:
>>> B = A.copy()
is equivalent to:
>>> B = A[:,:]
On the other hand:
>>> B = A.copy()
is not the same as:
>>> B = A
The latter version only returns a reference to the same object and assigns it to B. Subsequent changes to A will therefore also be visible in B.
This method is provided for efficiently assembling global finite element matrices. The method adds the matrix \(\mathbf{B}\) to entries of matrix \(\mathbf{A}\). The indices of the entries to be updated are specified by the integer arrays ind0 and ind1. The individual updates are enabled or disabled using the mask0 and mask1 arrays.
The operation is equivalent to the following Python code:
for i in range(len(ind0)):
for j in range(len(ind1)):
if mask0[i] and mask1[j]:
A[ind0[i],ind1[j]] += B[i,j]
All five parameters are NumPy arrays. \(\mathbf{B}\) is a rank-2 array. The four remaining parameters are rank-1 arrays. Their length corresponds to either the number of rows or the number of columns of \(\mathbf{B}\).
This method is not supported for ll_mat objects of symmetric type, since it would generally result in an non-symmetric matrix. update_add_mask_sym must be used in that case. Attempting to call this method using a ll_mat object of symmetric type will raise an exception.
This method is provided for efficiently assembling symmetric global finite element matrices. The method adds the matrix \(\mathbf{B}\) to entries of matrix \(\mathbf{A}\). The indices of the entries to be updated are specified by the integer array ind. The individual updates are enabled or disabled using the mask array.
The operation is equivalent to the following Python code:
for i in range(len(ind)):
for j in range(len(ind)):
if mask[i]:
A[ind[i],ind[j]] += B[i,j]
The three parameters are all NumPy arrays. \(\mathbf{B}\) is a rank-2 array representing a square matrix. The two remaining parameters are rank-1 arrays. Their length corresponds to the order of matrix \(\mathbf{B}\).
Add in place the elements of the vector val at the indices given by the two arrays irow and jcol. The operation is equivalent to:
for i in range(len(val)):
A[irow[i],jcol[i]] += val[i]
Convert ll_mat object to non-symmetric form in place.
Frees memory by reclaiming unused space in the internal data structure. Returns the number of elements freed.
Returns the p-norm of a matrix, where p is a string. If p='1', the 1-norm is returned, if p='inf', the infinity-norm is returned, and if p='fro', the Frobenius norm is returned.
Note
The 1 and infinity norm are not yet implemented for symmetric matrices.
Return a list of tuples (i,j) of the nonzero matrix entries.
Return a list of the nonzero matrix entries as floats.
Return a list of tuples (indices, value) of the nonzero entries keys and values. The indices are themselves tuples (i,j) of row and column values.
Scale each element in the matrix by the constant sigma.
Extract elements at positions (irow[i], jcol[i]) and place them in the array val. In other words:
for i in range(len(val)): val[i] = A[irow[i],jcol[i]]
put takes the opposite tack to take. Place the values in val at positions given by irow and jcol:
for i in range(len(val)): A[irow[i],jcol[i]] = val[i]
Here, irow and jcol can be Python lists or integer Numpy arrays. If either irow or jcol is omitted, it is replaced with [0, 1, 2, ...]. Similarly, val can be a Python list, an integer Numpy array or a single scalar. If val is a scalar v, it has the same effect as if it were the constant list or array [v, v, ..., v].
Delete rows in place. If mask[i] == 0, the i-th row is deleted. This operation does not simply zero out rows, they are removed, i.e., the resulting matrix is smaller.
Similar to delete_rows only with columns.
If mask[i] == 0 both the i-th row and the i-th column are deleted.
Returns a triple (val,irow,jcol) of Numpy arrays containing the matrix in coordinate format. There is a nonzero element with value val[i] in position (irow[i],jcol[i]).
csr_mat objects represent matrices stored in the CSR format, which are described in Sparse Matrix Formats. sss_mat objects represent matrices stored in the SSS format (c.f. Sparse Matrix Formats). The only way to create a csr_mat or a sss_mat object is by conversion of a ll_mat object using the to_csr() or the to_sss() method respectively. The purpose of the csr_mat and the sss_mat objects is to provide fast matrix-vector multiplications for sparse matrices. In addition, a matrix stored in the CSR or SSS format uses less memory than the same matrix stored in the LL format, since the link array is not needed.
csr_mat and sss_mat objects do not support two-dimensional indices to access matrix entries or sub-matrices. Again, their purpose is to provide fast matrix-vector multiplication.
A general sparse matrix class in compressed sparse row format which also allows the representation of symmetric matrices. Only the lower triangle of a symmetric matrix is kept in memory for efficiency.
A general sparse matrix class in sparse skyline format which also allows the representation of symmetric matrices. Only the lower triangle of a symmetric matrix is kept in memory for efficiency.
Returns a 2-tuple containing the shape of the matrix \(\mathbf{A}\), i.e. the number of rows and columns.
Returns the number of non-zero entries stored in matrix \(\mathbf{A}\). If \(\mathbf{A}\) is an sss_mat object, the non-zero entries in the strictly upper triangle are not counted.
Computes the sparse matrix-vector product \(\mathbf{y} := \mathbf{A} \mathbf{x}\) where \(\mathbf{x}\) and \(\mathbf{y}\) are double precision, rank-1 NumPy arrays of appropriate size.
Computes the transposed sparse matrix-vector product \(\mathbf{y} := \mathbf{A}^T \mathbf{x}\) where \(\mathbf{x}\) and \(\mathbf{y}\) are double precision, rank-1 NumPy arrays of appropriate size. For sss_mat objects matvec_transp is equivalent to matvec.
This section illustrates the use of the spmatrix module to build the well known 2D-Poisson matrix resulting from a \(n \times n\) square grid:
from pysparse.sparse import spmatrix
def poisson2d(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat(n2, n2, 5*n2-4*n)
for i in range(n):
for j in range(n):
k = i + n*j
L[k,k] = 4
if i > 0:
L[k,k-1] = -1
if i < n-1:
L[k,k+1] = -1
if j > 0:
L[k,k-n] = -1
if j < n-1:
L[k,k+n] = -1
return L
Using the symmetric variant of the ll_mat object, this gets even shorter:
def poisson2d_sym(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n2, 3*n2-2*n)
for i in range(n):
for j in range(n):
k = i + n*j
L[k,k] = 4
if i > 0:
L[k,k-1] = -1
if j > 0:
L[k,k-n] = -1
return L
To illustrate the use of the slice notation to address sub-matrices, let’s build the 2D Poisson matrix using the diagonal and off-diagonal blocks:
def poisson2d_sym_blk(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n2, 2*n2-2*n)
I = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n, n)
P = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n, 2*n-1)
for i in range(n):
I[i,i] = -1
for i in range(n):
P[i,i] = 4
if i > 0: P[i,i-1] = -1
for i in range(0, n*n, n):
L[i:i+n,i:i+n] = P
if i > 0: L[i:i+n,i-n:i] = I
return L
The put method of ll_mat objects allows us to operate on entire arrays at a time. This is advantageous because the loop over the elements of an array is performed at C level instead of in the Python script.
If you need to put the same value in many places, put lets you specify this value as a floating-point number instead of an array, e.g.:
A.put(4.0, range(n), range(n))
is perfectly equivalent to:
A.put(4*numpy.ones(n), range(n), range(n))
Moreover, if the second index set is omitted, it defaults to range(n) where n is the appropriate matrix dimension. So the above is again perfectly equivalent to:
A.put(4.0, range(n))
For illustration, let’s rewrite the poisson2d, poisson2d_sym and poisson2d_sym_blk constructors.
The put method can be used in poisson2d as so:
from pysparse.sparse import spmatrix
import numpy
def poisson2d_vec(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat(n2, n2, 5*n2-4*n)
d = numpy.arange(n2, dtype=numpy.int)
L.put(4.0, d)
L.put(-1.0, d[:-n], d[n:])
L.put(-1.0, d[n:], d[:-n])
for i in xrange(n):
di = d[i*n:(i+1)*n]
L.put(-1.0, di[1:], di[:-1])
L.put(-1.0, di[:-1], di[1:])
return L
And similarly in the symmetric version:
def poisson2d_sym_vec(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n2, 3*n2-2*n)
d = numpy.arange(n2, dtype=numpy.int)
L.put(4.0, d)
L.put(-1.0, d[n:], d[:-n])
for i in xrange(n):
di = d[i*n:(i+1)*n]
L.put(-1.0, di[:-1], di[1:])
return L
The time differences to construct matrices with and without vectorization can be dramatic. The following timings were generated on a 2.4GHz Intel Core2 Duo processor:
In [1]: from pysparse.tools import poisson, poisson_vec
In [2]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d(100)
10 loops, best of 3: 38.2 ms per loop
In [3]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_vec(100)
10 loops, best of 3: 4.26 ms per loop
In [4]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d(300)
10 loops, best of 3: 352 ms per loop
In [5]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_vec(300)
10 loops, best of 3: 31.7 ms per loop
In [6]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d(500)
10 loops, best of 3: 980 ms per loop
In [7]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_vec(500)
10 loops, best of 3: 86.4 ms per loop
In [8]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 4.02 s per loop
In [9]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_vec(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 333 ms per loop
and for the symmetric versions:
In [18]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d_sym(100)
10 loops, best of 3: 22.6 ms per loop
In [19]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_sym_vec(100)
10 loops, best of 3: 2.48 ms per loop
In [20]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d_sym(300)
10 loops, best of 3: 202 ms per loop
In [21]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_sym_vec(300)
10 loops, best of 3: 20 ms per loop
In [22]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d_sym(500)
10 loops, best of 3: 561 ms per loop
In [23]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_sym_vec(500)
10 loops, best of 3: 53.8 ms per loop
In [24]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d_sym(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 2.26 s per loop
In [25]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_sym_vec(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 205 ms per loop
From these numbers, it is obvious that vectorizing is crucial, especially for large matrices. The gain in terms of time seems to be a factor of at least four or five. Note that the last system has order one million.
Finally, the block version could be written as:
def poisson2d_vec_sym_blk(n):
n2 = n*n
L = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n2, 3*n2-2*n)
D = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n, 2*n-1)
d = numpy.arange(n, dtype=numpy.int)
D.put(4.0, d)
D.put(-1.0, d[1:], d[:-1])
P = spmatrix.ll_mat_sym(n, n-1)
P.put(-1,d)
for i in xrange(n-1):
L[i*n:(i+1)*n, i*n:(i+1)*n] = D
L[(i+1)*n:(i+2)*n, i*n:(i+1)*n] = P
# Last diagonal block
L[-n:,-n:] = D
return L
Here, put is sufficiently efficient that the benefit of constructing the matrix by blocks is not apparent anymore. The slicing and block notation can nevertheless be used for clarity. It could also be implemented as a combination of find and put, at the expense of memory consumption.
In [9]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson.poisson2d_sym_blk(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 246 ms per loop
In [10]: %timeit -n10 -r3 L = poisson_vec.poisson2d_sym_blk_vec(1000)
10 loops, best of 3: 232 ms per loop
Let’s compare the performance of three python codes above with the following Matlab functions:
The Matlab function poisson2d is equivalent to the Python function with the same name
function L = poisson2d(n)
L = sparse(n*n);
for i = 1:n
for j = 1:n
k = i + n*(j-1);
L(k,k) = 4;
if i > 1, L(k,k-1) = -1; end
if i < n, L(k,k+1) = -1; end
if j > 1, L(k,k-n) = -1; end
if j < n, L(k,k+n) = -1; end
end
end
The function poisson2d_blk is an adaption of the Python function poisson2d_sym_blk (except for exploiting the symmetry, which is not directly supported in Matlab).
function L = poisson2d_blk(n)
e = ones(n,1);
P = spdiags([-e 4*e -e], [-1 0 1], n, n);
I = -speye(n);
L = sparse(n*n);
for i = 1:n:n*n
L(i:i+n-1,i:i+n-1) = P;
if i > 1, L(i:i+n-1,i-n:i-1) = I; end
if i < n*n - n, L(i:i+n-1,i+n:i+2*n-1) = I; end
end
The function poisson2d_kron demonstrates one of the most efficient ways to generate the 2D Poisson matrix in Matlab.
function L = poisson2d_kron(n)
e = ones(n,1);
P = spdiags([-e 2*e -e], [-1 0 1], n, n);
L = kron(P, speye(n)) + kron(speye(n), P);
The Matlab functions above were place in a Matlab script names poisson.m which takes n as argument. It then calls poisson2d, poisson2d_blk and poisson2d_kron successively, surrounding each call by tic and toc. The tests were performed on a 2.4GHz Intel Core2 Duo running Matlab 7.6.0.324 (R2008a).
The results are as follows:
>> poisson(100)
poisson2d Elapsed time is 1.731940 seconds.
poisson2d_blk Elapsed time is 0.804837 seconds.
poisson2d_kron Elapsed time is 0.019118 seconds.
>> poisson(300)
poisson2d Elapsed time is 145.979044 seconds.
poisson2d_blk Elapsed time is 32.785585 seconds.
poisson2d_kron Elapsed time is 0.215165 seconds.
>> poisson(500)
poisson2d Elapsed time is 2318.512099 seconds.
poisson2d_blk Elapsed time is 292.355093 seconds.
poisson2d_kron Elapsed time is 0.627137 seconds.
>> poisson(1000)
poisson2d_kron Elapsed time is 2.317660 seconds.
It is striking to see how slow the straightforward poisson2d version is in Matlab. As we see in the next section, the Python version is faster by several orders of magnitude.
First, consider the simple Poisson2D function. The table below summarizes the results of the previous section by giving timing ratios between the Python and Matlab Poisson constructors.
n | Matlab | Python | Python_vec | Matlab/Python | Matlab/Python_vec |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
100 | 1.73 | 0.0382 | 0.00426 | 45.53 | 406.1 |
300 | 145.98 | 0.3520 | 0.0317 | 414.72 | 4605.0 |
500 | 2318.51 | 0.9800 | 0.0864 | 2365.8 | 26834.6 |
1000 | \(\infty\) | 4.02 | 0.333 | \(\infty\) | \(\infty\) |
Unfortunately, since Matlab does not explicitly support symmetric matrices, we cannot compare the other functions. For information only, we compare the block version of the Python constructor with the Kronecker-product version of the Matlab constructor. The results are in the next table.
n | Matlab | Python_vec | Matlab/Python_vec |
---|---|---|---|
100 | 0.01912 | 0.0025 | 7.65 |
300 | 0.2152 | 0.0219 | 9.83 |
500 | 0.6271 | 0.0631 | 9.94 |
1000 | 2.318 | 0.232 | 9.99 |